Cancer Report

Cancer : Gastric (Stomach) tumors
Summary
Cancer Name Gastric (Stomach) tumors
Cancer Alias "gastric cancer, stomach cancer"
Description Cancer that forms in tissues lining the stomach. Also called gastric cancer.
 
Clinics and Pathology
 
Related Genes
Gene Symbol PTPRG
Description From OMIM: "Wang et al. (2004) performed a mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatase gene superfamily in human cancers and identified 83 somatic mutations in 6 protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPRF, 179590; PTPRG; PTPRT, 608712; PTPN3, 176877; PTPN13, 600267; and PTPN14, 603155), affecting 26% of colorectal cancers and a smaller fraction of lung, breast, and gastric cancers."
 
Gene Symbol TFF1
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol KIT
Description From COSMIC, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol SHH
Description From OMIM: "Berman et al. (2003) demonstrated that a wide range of digestive tract tumors, including most of those originating in the esophagus, stomach, biliary tract, and pancreas, but not in the colon, display increased hedgehog pathway activity, which is suppressible by cyclopamine, a hedgehog pathway antagonist. Cyclopamine also suppresses cell growth in vitro and causes durable regression of xenograft tumor in vivo. Unlike tumors in Gorlin syndrome (109400), pathway activity and cell growth in these digestive tract tumors are driven by endogenous expression of hedgehog ligands, as indicated by the presence of Sonic hedgehog and Indian hedgehog transcripts, by the pathway- and growth-inhibitory activity of a hedgehog-neutralizing antibody, and by the dramatic growth-stimulatory activity of exogenously added hedgehog ligand. Berman et al. (2003) concluded that their results identified a group of common lethal malignancies in which hedgehog pathway activity, essential for tumor growth, is activated not by mutation but by ligand expression."
 
Gene Symbol ERBB2
Description From COSMIC, manual review, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol MET
Description From COSMIC, manual review
 
Gene Symbol TGFBR2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CASK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TIE
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GPRK6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CTNNB1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHB4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol APEG1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TLK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHB1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol KLF6
Description From OMIM: "In tumor tissue from a sporadic gastric cancer of the intestinal type (137215), Cho et al. (2005) identified heterozygosity for a 3412C-A transversion in exon 2 of the KLF6 gene, resulting in a ser155-to-arg (S155R) substitution in the transactivation domain. The mutation was not found in corresponding normal tissue, suggestive of somatic mutation."
 
Gene Symbol EPHA8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SGK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MASTL
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol K-RAS
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MARK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHA6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MARK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TEX14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHA2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol WEE2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHA10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TP73
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol EIF2AK4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MLKL
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NTRK3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RUNX3
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol NTRK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PIK3CA
Description From COSMIC, cancer gene census of CGP, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol EGFR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MINK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ROS1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TOPORS
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PIM2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTK9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MGC43306
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RPS6KA3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol N-RAS
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ROCK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DYRK3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MGC42105
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BRSK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BRD2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HRAS
Description From COSMIC, manual review
 
Gene Symbol BRD3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ROR1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol APC
Description From COSMIC, manual review
 
Gene Symbol BRDT
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PDGFRA
Description From cancer gene census of CGP:
 
Gene Symbol TRRAP
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HRI
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MST4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRPM7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FHIT
Description From OMIM: "Ohta et al. (1996) identified a human gene, which they designated fragile histidine triad (FHIT). The FHIT gene, a member of the histidine triad gene family, encodes a protein similar to the aph1 gene in S. pombe. The gene is composed of 10 exons distributed over at least 500 kb, with three 5-prime untranslated exons centromeric to the renal carcinoma-associated 3p14.2 breakpoint, the remaining exons telomeric to this translocation breakpoint, and exon 5 within the homozygously deleted fragile region. Aberrant transcripts of the FHIT locus were found in approximately 50% of esophageal, stomach, and colon carcinomas."
 
Gene Symbol ACK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MADH4
Description From COSMIC, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol PRKWNK4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FGFR2
Description From COSMIC, manual review, cancer gene census of CGP, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol TRIO
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKWNK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FLJ23074
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TTK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AATK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TTBK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BMPR1B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BMPR2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDKN2A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BMPR1A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FASTK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IGF2R
Description From OMIM: "Souza et al. (1996) reported that the IGF2R gene contains a number of microsatellite repeats within its coding sequence. They demonstrated microsatellite instability in this gene in 12 of 92 gastrointestinal tumors studied which were replication/repair error-positive. Mutations occurred in 6 of the poorly differentiated tumors. They noted an anticorrespondence of IGF2R and TGFBR2 (190182) mutations. Of 31 gastrointestinal lesions studied with IGF2R or TGFBR2 mutations, 90% (28) contained mutations in one or the other, but not both, of these genes. Souza et al. (1996) demonstrated that all but 1 of the mutations occurred within an 8-polydeoxyguanine tract spanning nucleotides 4089-4096 of the IGF2R coding sequence. In 1 case of gastric adenocarcinoma, mutation occurred in a polyCT tract spanning nucleotides 6169-6180. These mutations all comprised 1- or 2-bp deletions or insertions within the microsatellite region, causing frameshifts and premature stop codons downstream."
 
Gene Symbol LRRK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BRAF
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MSH6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol LIMK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PDGFRB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol INSR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTENP1
Description From COSMIC, manual review
 
Gene Symbol INSL3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP3K9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ATM
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDH1
Description From COSMIC, cancer gene census of CGP, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol MAP4K4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMG1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAPK14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol OBSCN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ATR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKAA2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DCAMKL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKCA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDC7L1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP3K4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RB1
Description From COSMIC, manual review
 
Gene Symbol ITK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AXL
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DCC
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol NEK8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol JAK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MYEOV
Description From OMIM: "By cloning gastric carcinoma tumor DNA into phage vectors, probing with human Alu repetitive sequences, and exon-trap analysis, Janssen et al. (2000) isolated a cDNA encoding MYEOV (myeloma overexpressed gene). Sequence analysis predicted that the 313-amino acid protein contains no known functional motifs except for an RNP1 motif typical of RNA-binding proteins and a leucine-isoleucine tail similar to cytoplasmically exposed membrane proteins with a C-terminal membrane anchor. Northern blot analysis detected a major 2.8-kb and a minor 3.5-kb transcript in various tumor cell lines. In 3 of 7 multiple myeloma cell lines with a t(11;14)(q13;q32) and cyclin D1 (CCND1; 168461) overexpression, Northern blot analysis determined that MYEOV was overexpressed. In all 7 cell lines, the breakpoint was mapped to the 360-kb region between the 2 genes. MYEOV overexpression was associated with the juxtaposition of an enhancer to the MYEOV gene."
 
Gene Symbol TTN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ERN1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ULK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PAK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ERBB3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKD2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ACVR2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Bibliography
Title Mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 genes associated with human gastric and colorectal cancers.
Authors Jang, J.-H.; Shin, K.-H.; Park, J.-G.
Citations Cancer Res. 61: 3541-3543, 2001.
PubMedID 11325814
 
Title E-Cadherin gene mutations provide clues to diffuse type gastric carcinomas.
Authors "Becker, K.-F.; Atkinson, M. J.; Reich, U.; Becker, I.; Nekarda, H.; Siewert, J. R.; Hoefler, H."
Citations "Cancer Res. 54: 3845-3852, 1994."
PubMedID 8033105
 
Title Deciphering the underlying genetic and epigenetic events leading to gastric carcinogenesis.
Authors "Vogiatzi P, Vindigni C, Roviello F, Renieri A, Giordano A."
Citations J Cell Physiol. 2007 May;211(2):287-95
PubMedID 17238139
 
Title "The FHIT gene, spanning the chromosome 3p14.2 fragile site and renal carcinoma-associated t(3;8) breakpoint, is abnormal in digestive tract cancers. "
Authors "Ohta, M.; Inoue, H.; Cotticelli, M. G.; Kastury, K.; Baffa, R.; Palazzo, J.; Siprashvili, Z.; Mori, M.; McCue, P.; Druck, T.; Croce, C. M.; Huebner, K."
Citations "Cell 84: 587-597, 1996. "
PubMedID 8598045
 
Title Genetic alterations of the KLF6 gene in gastric cancer.
Authors "Cho, Y. G.; Kim, C. J.; Park, C. H.; Yang, Y. M.; Kim, S. Y.; Nam, S. W.; Lee, S. H.; Yoo, N. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Park, W. S."
Citations "Oncogene 24: 4588-4590, 2005."
PubMedID 15824733
 
Title High frequency of mutations of the PIK3CA gene in human cancers.
Authors "Samuels, Y.; Wang, Z.; Bardelli, A.; Silliman, N.; Ptak, J.; Szabo, S.; Yan, H.; Gazdar, A.; Powell, S. M.; Riggins, G. J.; Willson, J. K. V.; Markowitz, S.; Kinzler, K. W.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V. E."
Citations "Science 304: 554 only, 2004."
PubMedID 15016963
 
Title Familial lung cancer: genetic susceptibility and relationship to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Authors "Schwartz AG, Ruckdeschel JC."
Citations Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Jan 1;173(1):16-22
PubMedID 16141445
 
Title Genetic alterations in signaling pathways in melanoma
Authors "Haluska FG, Tsao H, Wu H, Haluska FS, Lazar A, Goel V."
Citations Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Apr 1;12(7 Pt 2):2301s-2307s
PubMedID 16609049
 
Title Smad4 signalling in T cells is required for suppression of gastrointestinal cancer.
Authors "Kim, B.-G.; Li, C.; Qiao, W.; Mamura, M.; Kasprzak, B.; Anver, M.; Wolfraim, L.; Hong, S.; Mushinski, E.; Potter, M.; Kim, S.-J.; Fu, X.-Y.; Deng, C.; Letterio, J. J."
Citations "Nature 441: 1015-1019, 2006. Note: Erratum: Nature 444: 780 only, 2006. "
PubMedID 16791201
 
Title microRNAs as oncogenes and tumor suppressors.
Authors "Zhang B, Pan X, Cobb GP, Anderson TA."
Citations Dev Biol. 2007 Feb 1;302(1):1-12.
PubMedID 16989803
 
Title Mutational analysis of the tyrosine phosphatome in colorectal cancers.
Authors "Wang, Z.; Shen, D.; Parsons, D. W.; Bardelli, A.; Sager, J.; Szabo, S.; Ptak, J.; Silliman, N.; Peters, B. A.; van der Heijden, M. S.; Parmigiani, G.; Yan, H.; Wang, T.-L.; Riggins, G.; Powell, S. M.; Willson, J. K. V.; Markowitz, S.; Kinzler, K. W.; Vogelstein, B.; Velculescu, V. E."
Citations "Science 304: 1164-1166, 2004."
PubMedID 15155950
 
Title Molecular markers in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Authors van der Poel HG.
Citations Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2007 Feb;61(2):104-39.
PubMedID 16945550
 
Title Management of familial melanoma.
Authors "Bishop JN, Harland M, Randerson-Moor J, Bishop DT."
Citations Lancet Oncol. 2007 Jan;8(1):46-54.
PubMedID 17196510
 
Title Widespread requirement for hedgehog ligand stimulation in growth of digestive tract tumours.
Authors "Berman, D. M.; Karhadkar, S. S.; Maitra, A.; Montes de Oca, R.; Gerstenblith, M. R.; Briggs, K.; Parker, A. R.; Shimada, Y.; Eshleman, J. R.; Watkins, D. N.; Beachy, P. A. "
Citations "Nature 425: 846-851, 2003. "
PubMedID 14520411
 
Title Microsatellite instability in the insulin-like growth factor II receptor gene in gastrointestinal tumours.
Authors "Souza, R. F.; Appel, R.; Yin, J.; Wang, S.; Smolinski, K. N.; Abraham, J. M.; Zou, T.-T.; Shi, Y.-Q.; Lei, J.; Cottrell, J.; Cymes, K.; Biden, K.; Simms, L.; Leggett, B.; Lynch, P. M.; Frazier, M.; Powell, S. M.; Harpaz, N.; Sugimura, H.; Young, J.; Meltzer, S. J. "
Citations "(Letter) Nature Genet. 14: 255-257, 1996.
PubMedID 8896552
 
Title "Concurrent activation of a novel putative transforming gene, myeov, and cyclin D1 in a subset of multiple myeloma cell lines with t(11;14)(q13;q32). "
Authors "Janssen, J. W. G.; Vaandrager, J.-W.; Heuser, T.; Jauch, A.; Kluin, P. M.; Geelen, E.; Bergsagel, P. L.; Kuehl, W. M.; Drexler, H. G.; Otsuki, T.; Bartram, C. R.; Schuuring, E. "
Citations "Blood 95: 2691-2698, 2000. "
PubMedID 10753852
 
Source and Citation
Source NCI
Citation "NCI, URL:http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/stomach/"
URL http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/smallintestine