Cancer Report

Cancer : Skin Melanoma
Summary
Cancer Name Skin Melanoma
Cancer Alias "Cutaneous melanoma, Melanoma skin cancer"
Description "Skin melanoma is a relatively common human cancer with an increasing incidence trend and originates from skin melanocytes, which are neural crest derived cells. Melanoma arises in more than 95% of cases in the skin, although other sites of primary extracutaneous melanoma include uvea , oral and genital mucosae, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, leptomeninges and lymph nodes"
 
Clinics and Pathology
 
Related Genes
Gene Symbol PLEKHA4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PLCG2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ZDHHC5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HAK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol APC
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PLK
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol PLEKHA5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GUCY2C
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PLEKHA7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GUCY2D
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol XAB2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GRIN2A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol XPA
Description From cancer gene census of CGP:
 
Gene Symbol ARHGAP11A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ARHGAP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol XPC
Description From cancer gene census of CGP:
 
Gene Symbol GRIN2B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PKLR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol XPO5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ARHGAP10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PLAT
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol XRCC3
Description From OMIM: "Exposure to UV radiation is a major risk factor for the development of malignant melanoma. DNA damage caused by UV radiation is thought to play a major role in carcinogenesis. In an investigation of the association between polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and the development of malignant melanoma, Winsey et al. (2000) studied 125 individuals with malignant melanoma lesions or staging suggesting a high risk of relapse or metastatic disease. They found that the presence of a T allele at position 18067 in exon 7 of the XRCC3 gene was significantly associated with melanoma development (P = 0.004; odds ratio, 2.36; relative risk, 1.74)."
 
Gene Symbol PLCE1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol XRCC6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PLCG1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GPRK7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol YANK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PLCD1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PLCB4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol POU5F1P1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HGF
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol POLQ
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HIF1AN
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol ARHGEF19
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HIPK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol POLN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol WNT2
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol POLA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol WNT5A
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol PPFIA4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPFIBP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HERC2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HES6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol WWP2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ARHGAP29
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HECW2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HECW1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ASB11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol WEE1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HDAC4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ARNT
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HDAC2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HECTD2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ARL7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ALDOB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AKT3
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol ALDH2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PIGM
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ANAPC13
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HNF4A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ANAPC5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ANKHD1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PIGO
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ALS2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ALS2CR2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol APAF1
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol APBB1IP
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ANKRD17
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HRAS
Description From COSMIC, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol PINX1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PIP5K2A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ANKRD3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PITPNC1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ANKRD44
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PIK3CA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BIN1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PDCD4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PDCD6IP
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BICD2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PDCD11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BIRC6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BIRC3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PCGF2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BMPR1B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FGFR4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FGR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PIB5PA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FMO4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PI4KII
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FLT4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BNIP3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PH-4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FOXM1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FOXL2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FOXJ2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BRAF
Description From COSMIC, manual review, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol PDGFRA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol OC90
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ASTN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol OBSCN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ATF1
Description From cancer gene census of CGP:
 
Gene Symbol FZD7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NUPL2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NXF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FZD6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FYN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NUP153
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NUP205
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NUP210
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FOXN1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ATR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ATRX
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NTRK3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FRAP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NUMA1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NUMB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AXUD1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PALB2
Description From COSMIC, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol GNAQ
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GNA11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BAX
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BAI3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PASK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BCL11A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GNB4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PAK7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GCK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BCL2L13
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BCL2L14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PAK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BCL2
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol OSR1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GEMIN4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GEMIN5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GEFT
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ROCK1
Description From cancer gene census of CGP: CDKN2A -p16(INK4a)
 
Gene Symbol BCL6B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GDF3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNRC11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNPO3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTPRF
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CASP8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TOP2A
Description From COSMIC, manual review
 
Gene Symbol PTPRC
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CASP4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TOP3A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TOP2B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTPRK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CASP10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol KHSRP
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTPRJ
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TOPBP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CARD6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol KIAA1244
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CARD14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol KIT
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol GPR109B
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol PTPRT
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAB31
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CAMK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAB28
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAB2L
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CAGE-1
Description From OMIM: "By screening cDNA expression libraries from 3 lung cancer cell lines and human testis tissue with sera of patients with lung cancers, Park et al. (2003) identified CTAG3, which they designated CAGE1, with an expression pattern similar to that of cancer/testis antigens (e.g., CTAG1, 300156). The deduced 639-amino acid soluble CTAG3 protein has a calculated molecular mass of 73 kD and contains 2 consensus glycosylation sites and 10 consensus protein kinase C phosphorylation sites. It shares 76% sequence identity with a monkey homolog. RT-PCR analysis detected testis-specific expression among normal tissues and wide expression among various cancer tissues and cancer cell lines including those from cervical, melanoma, hepatic, renal, myeloma, and breast cancers. CTAG3 was overexpressed in cancer tissues compared with surrounding noncancerous tissues. Transfection experiments with a GFP-CTAG3 construct indicated a predominantly nuclear localization."
 
Gene Symbol QSK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAB8A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDC25A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol KLK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDC2L1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CCR1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAB3IL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDC2
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol RAB5C
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MIA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CCNL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAD51L1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNF
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNFRSF5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAD18
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNFRSF1A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAD21
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol KLK14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNFRSF8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAD54L
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAD9B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNFRSF9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CBLL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNFSF10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNFSF12
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RALA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNKS2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TNPO1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TOPORS
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TP73L
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TP53BP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTENP1
Description From COSMIC, manual review
 
Gene Symbol TRAF2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol K-RAS
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TPO
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM16
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRERF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BBS9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTGES
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol C20ORF23
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol C2ORF29
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTK2B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol BRSK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTPLA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol C11ORF30
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTPN14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTPNS1L2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKWNK4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HSPA2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HSPA4L
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol HSPA6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIO
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTCH
Description From COSMIC, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol HSPB2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TTBK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IDH2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM33
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM25
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PTCH2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IKBKAP
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IKBKB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IL10
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM56
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM55
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IMPA1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM60
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IMPA2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TRIM37
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDKN2A
Description From COSMIC, manual review, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol INPPL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol INPP5E
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol USP52
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP1R3A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IPO11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP1R9A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol USP47
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol INSRR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol USP42
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP3CA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP3CB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol USP37
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol INSR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP1CB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP1R12A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol IPO8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ITGB6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ITGB5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDC2L5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDC42BPB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol VEGFC
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol VEGF
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol PPP6C
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol VCIP135
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ITK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol VAV1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP4C
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PPP3R2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ITGB8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ITGB7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKCI
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TTN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKCL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ITPR2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDKL5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKCM
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol PRKDC
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ULK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol UBE4B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDK11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol JARID1A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDK4
Description From manual review, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol UBE2H
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol UBE2O
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDK5RAP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDK5RAP2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol UAP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CDK6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SHC3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SIRT6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MELK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MEFV
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SGK223
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SGK269
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MCM8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MCM3AP
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SERPINB2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MCM4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CREBBP
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MCAM
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol CRSP2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MCM2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol COPS3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol COPS7B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MC1R
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol SCYL2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SEC63
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CSPG2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAST1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SERPINA1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SERPINA10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SERPINA13
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CIT
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MMP20
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SACS
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CIAS1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SCYL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CHN1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol COH1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MITF
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol RSPO2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MLH3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RRM1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CERK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MIDORI
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RORC
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MINK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RPS6KA2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MFAP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CHES1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol METTL4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ROCK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MGA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CHD6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RNF41
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ROR1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CERKL
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DGKD
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RKHD2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RNF135
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DGKZ
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DGKG
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DHX35
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RIMS2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DHX30
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RIPK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DHX36
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DKK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MADD
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RICTOR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RHOQ
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DNAJA4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RGS12
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DNAJC5G
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DDIT3
Description From OMIM: "Using differential expression and immunohistochemical analyses of benign nevi and melanomas of different levels, Korabiowska et al. (1997) observed p53 (TP53; 191170) negativity and high expression of GADD34 (PPP1R15A; 611048), GADD45 (GADD45A; 126335), and GADD153 in all nevi. However, in melanomas, p53 expression increased and GADD expression decreased with the Clark level of melanoma thickness. Patient survival time correlated negatively with p53 positivity and positively with GADD45 and GADD153 expression. Korabiowska et al. (1997) concluded that GADD proteins play an important role in the malignant transformation of nevus to melanoma."
 
Gene Symbol REV3L
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol LRIG3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol LOC402569
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol REST
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DDX17
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DDX24
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DDX28
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol LRP6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DDX3X
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RECQL4
Description From COSMIC, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol DDX4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DENND4A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RBBP8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DEPDC2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol LOC340096
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DGKB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP4K1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP3K9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RB1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CXCR6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CXCR4
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol MAP4K4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DAB2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DAAM2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAPK7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAPK14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP3K13
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP3K1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP3K10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DAXX
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol DDB2
Description From cancer gene census of CGP:
 
Gene Symbol DCT
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol DCLRE1A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MAP3K4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RASGRP4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RASL12
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CTNNB1
Description From COSMIC, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol MAP2K4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RASA4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RASA3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RASGRF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RASD2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MMP19
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol RAPGEF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CUL4A
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RAPGEF2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol RANBP9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol CTNND2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NR1D1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NPM1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TGFB2
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol THRAP2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHB4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol THRB
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHB3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NR1H4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHA8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NIN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NGEF
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHA6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHA7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NEK8
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPHA4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NOV
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TERF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NOTCH2
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol TESK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EPAS1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TEX14
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ENC1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SYNJ2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SYK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EIF2AK4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TAF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EGFR
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TAF1L
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NTRK2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol TAOK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK16
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EED
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ECT2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK22D
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol E2F6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK19
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK39
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK38
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK33
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK32B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol N-RAS
Description From COSMIC, manual review, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol DYRK1B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FGD1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MTAP
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol FGF17
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol ACK1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STAT3
Description From OMIM: "To assess the effect of Stat3 deficiency on mouse skin tumor development, Chan et al. (2004) used the tumor initiator 7,12-dimethylbenz(alpha)anthracene (DMBA) and the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the 2-stage chemical carcinogenesis model. Stat3-deficient mice showed significantly reduced epidermal proliferation following treatment with TPA because of a defect in progression of the cell cycle from G1 to S phase; treatment with DMBA resulted in a significant increase in the number of apoptotic keratinocyte stem cells. Stat3-deficient mice were completely resistant to skin tumor development when DMBA was used as the initiator and TPA as the promoter. Abrogation of Stat3 function using a decoy oligonucleotide inhibited the growth of initiated keratinocytes possessing an activated Hras gene (190020), both in vitro and in vivo. Injection of Stat3 decoy into skin tumors inhibited their growth. Chan et al. (2004) concluded that STAT3 is required for de novo epithelial carcinogenesis through maintaining the survival of DNA-damaged stem cells and through mediating and maintaining the proliferation necessary for clonal expansion of initiated cells during tumor promotion."
 
Gene Symbol STATIP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ABL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STAG3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FBXO45
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FBXW2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol STK11
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FBXW7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SOCS7
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol MPG
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SP3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MSH2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FBXO34
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SNF1LK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FBXO32
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SNX26
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FBXO43
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FBXO38
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SPRY1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FANCD2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol FANCA
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SPDEF
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SPRED3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MSH6
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SPEN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AKAP9
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMCY
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NCOA2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ETV7
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMARCF1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EZH2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AK5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NCOA3
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AKAP10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMC2L1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NCOA5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMARCC2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EXO1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol AKAP12
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol EST1B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NCOR2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ESRRBL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ETS1
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol NEDD4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NEK10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SNAI2
Description From OMIM: The observations of Gupta et al. (2005) indicated that part of the metastatic proclivity of melanoma (155600) is attributable to lineage-specific factors expressed in melanocytes and not in other cells types analyzed.
 
Gene Symbol ETV5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADHFE1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADK
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMO
Description From COSMIC, cancer gene census of CGP, OMIM
 
Gene Symbol SMARCA5
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADAMTS20
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ERCC6
Description From OMIM: "UV-sensitive syndrome (600630) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by photosensitivity and mild freckling but without the neurologic abnormalities or skin tumors of known photosensitive disorders such as xeroderma pigmentosum or Cockayne syndrome. In a cell line from a patient with UV-sensitive syndrome, Horibata et al. (2004) found that microcell-mediated transfer of chromosome 10 directed the UV hypersensitivity, causing these cells to acquire UV resistance. Because the gene responsible for Cockayne syndrome group B is located on chromosome 10, they sequenced the gene in this cell line and identified a homozygous null mutation (609413.0009). Another cell line from an unrelated patient with UV-sensitive syndrome had no mutation in the ERCC6 cDNA and a normal amount of the protein was detected."
 
Gene Symbol MYCN
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMARCA4
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMARCA1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ERCC5
Description From cancer gene census of CGP:
 
Gene Symbol SLCO6A1
Description From manual review:
 
Gene Symbol ADAMTS10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MYO3B
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SK681
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol MYST2
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SKIL
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADAMTS18
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMARCC1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADAM20
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADAM18
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADAM33
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol NALP1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ERCC4
Description From cancer gene census of CGP:
 
Gene Symbol ACVR1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol SMARCAL1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ADAM10
Description From COSMIC:
 
Gene Symbol ERCC-3
Description From OMIM, cancer gene census of CGP
 
Gene Symbol SMARCAD1
Description From COSMIC:
 
Cytogenetics
Cytogenetics Morphological "Numerical and structural changes visible by standard cytogenetics are common in sporadic melanoma, which is frequently aneuploid with a modal chromosomal set usually ranging from 24 to more than 100.
The most common abnormality involves chromosome 1 with deletions and translocations usually including the region 1p12-22. A recurrent t(1;19) translocation has been also described in a subset of sporadic melanomas.
Deletions or translocations involving the long arm of one or both chromosome 6, commonly affecting the 6q16-23 region, are observed in nearly 80% of skin melanomas. The 6 chromosome short arm is generally retained in form of an isochromosome (i6p). The gain of the short arm of chromosome 6 may have a role in cancer progression, especially for metastastic evolution (in fact, the NEDD9 gene, whose overexpression in associated to metastatic melanomas, maps in 6p25-p24).
An equally common alteration is the gain of copies of chromosome 7. This finding is usually associated with late stages of skin melanoma.
A second set of chromosome abnormalities includes alterations of chromosome 2, 3, 9, 10 and 11. Among them, a recurrent site of alterations (predominantly deletions) in both premalignant nevi and metastatic melanomas is the short arm of chromosome 9, particularly the region 9q21. Loss of chromosome 10, especially involving the region 10q24-26, seems to be implicated in both the early and late stages of melanocytic neoplasia. In late stage melanomas, chromosome 10 loss often accompanies chromosome 7 gain. At the standard cytogenetic level, the rate of involvement of other chromosomes (i.e. 2, 3 and 11) is less consistent."
Cytogenetics Molecular "A large number of studies have searched for loss of heterozygosity (LOH), homozygous deletions (HD) and amplifications in cutaneous melanomas, events that are difficult or impossible to identify at the standard cytogenetic level.
Over the years, the improvement of laboratory techniques has collected a wide range of different approaches, including fluorescent in situ hybridization, standard microsatellite analysis on specific genomic regions and conventional chromosome-based comparative genomic hybridization array. Actually, the most sensitive technique is the high-density whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array, which is able to detect variations in number of copies of genomic DNA within an interval of only 9 kb. Therefore, the results of this type of analysis is by far the most sensitive among all available approaches.
Overall, whole chromosome arm LOH is most common on 9p, 9q, 10p and 10q, occurring in 40-50% of the cases. Considering focal (i.e. small portion of chromosome arms) LOH, these chromosome regions are involved in 49-72% of the cases. Over 40% of analyzed melanomas show LOH on 6q, 11q and 17p, while 33% on 5q. A broad spectrum of HD has been also registered and involves regions containing both well known melanoma progression associated genes (such as, CDKN2A and PTEN - for more details, see ""Genes Involved and Proteins"" section), and other genes, whose role in cancer evolution awaits further elucidations. In more that one fourth (25%) of melanomas there are chromosome gains involving 7p, 20q and 22q. Amplifications of single genes may be also detected by this technique, but these data will be discussed in the next section. The 8q region, in which maps the C-MYC gene, is amplified in nearly 14% of the cases."
 
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Source and Citation
Source Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol
Citation Castori M, Grammatico P . Skin Melanoma. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. May 2007 .URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/SkinMelanomID5416.html
URL http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/SkinMelanomID5416.html