Cancer Report

Cancer : T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL)
Summary
Cancer Name T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL)
 
Clinics and Pathology
Disease chronic T-cell lymphoproliferative syndrome
Epidemiology very rare disease; represents 20% of prolymphocytic leukemias; the disease occurs at advanced age, typically in the 7th or 8th decade; slight male predominance
Prognosis evolution: progresses rapidly and is generally more aggressive than B-PLL; poor response to chemotherapy is observed; median survival is approximatively 7 months from diagnosis
 
Related Genes
Gene Symbol MTCP1
Description From cancer gene census of CGP: "
  • as with other T-cell neoplasms, T-PLL exhibits clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor genes; translocation t(X;14)(q28;q11) may result into fusion of MTCP1 with TRA/Dgenes; finally, the TCL1 locus on chromosome 14q32 might also been involved
  • in Ataxia Telangiectasia- a rare recessive pleiotropic disease (including elevated cancer predisposition) mapping to 11q23 and caused by mutations of theATM gene - a recurrent malignancy is observed that is similar to T-PLL; its frequency in A-T patients is higher than in the non-A-T related form; A-T related TPLL has a similar course, a similar immunophenotype and similar cytogenetics (with the notable exception that 11q23 breakpoints are recurrent in the sporadic but not the A-T related form of the disease); an initial report of ATM mutations in T-PLL demonstrated the principle that ATM was a candidate cancer gene in sporadic forms of malignancies prevalent in A-T; the identification of lesions in ATM associated with T-PLL has shown that:
  • homozygous truncating mutations are present in some cases; this suggests ATM can appear to act like a conventional tumour suppressor with biallelic inactivation in the tumour cell
  • missense mutations cluster in the carboxy-terminal phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PIK) domain; this suggests impairment of this domain can contribute to - and may constitute a distinct step in - tumourigenesis
  • rearrangement of the gene is frequent; some rearrangements are consistent with a translocation event, in agreement with cytogenetic data implicating 11q23 in T-PLL; others involve transposition of a segment of the ATM gene elsewhere in the genome.
  • one allele only is mutated (by rearrangement) in some cases; this is probably not associated with a concomitant epigenetic event such as abnormal promoter methylation
  • no T-PLL case has been reported with germline ATM mutation; this may reflect the small numbers investigated; all the same, the hypothesis is excluded that this rare disease is due solely to germline ATM mutation "
  •  
    Gene Symbol CLTCL1
    Description "
  • as with other T-cell neoplasms, T-PLL exhibits clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor genes; translocation t(X;14)(q28;q11) may result into fusion of MTCP1 with TRA/Dgenes; finally, the TCL1 locus on chromosome 14q32 might also been involved
  • in Ataxia Telangiectasia- a rare recessive pleiotropic disease (including elevated cancer predisposition) mapping to 11q23 and caused by mutations of theATM gene - a recurrent malignancy is observed that is similar to T-PLL; its frequency in A-T patients is higher than in the non-A-T related form; A-T related TPLL has a similar course, a similar immunophenotype and similar cytogenetics (with the notable exception that 11q23 breakpoints are recurrent in the sporadic but not the A-T related form of the disease); an initial report of ATM mutations in T-PLL demonstrated the principle that ATM was a candidate cancer gene in sporadic forms of malignancies prevalent in A-T; the identification of lesions in ATM associated with T-PLL has shown that:
  • homozygous truncating mutations are present in some cases; this suggests ATM can appear to act like a conventional tumour suppressor with biallelic inactivation in the tumour cell
  • missense mutations cluster in the carboxy-terminal phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PIK) domain; this suggests impairment of this domain can contribute to - and may constitute a distinct step in - tumourigenesis
  • rearrangement of the gene is frequent; some rearrangements are consistent with a translocation event, in agreement with cytogenetic data implicating 11q23 in T-PLL; others involve transposition of a segment of the ATM gene elsewhere in the genome.
  • one allele only is mutated (by rearrangement) in some cases; this is probably not associated with a concomitant epigenetic event such as abnormal promoter methylation
  • no T-PLL case has been reported with germline ATM mutation; this may reflect the small numbers investigated; all the same, the hypothesis is excluded that this rare disease is due solely to germline ATM mutation "
  •  
    Gene Symbol TRA
    Description "
  • as with other T-cell neoplasms, T-PLL exhibits clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor genes; translocation t(X;14)(q28;q11) may result into fusion of MTCP1 with TCRAgenes; finally, the TCL1 locus on chromosome 14q32 might also been involved
  • in Ataxia Telangiectasia- a rare recessive pleiotropic disease (including elevated cancer predisposition) mapping to 11q23 and caused by mutations of theATM gene - a recurrent malignancy is observed that is similar to T-PLL; its frequency in A-T patients is higher than in the non-A-T related form; A-T related TPLL has a similar course, a similar immunophenotype and similar cytogenetics (with the notable exception that 11q23 breakpoints are recurrent in the sporadic but not the A-T related form of the disease); an initial report of ATM mutations in T-PLL demonstrated the principle that ATM was a candidate cancer gene in sporadic forms of malignancies prevalent in A-T; the identification of lesions in ATM associated with T-PLL has shown that:
  • homozygous truncating mutations are present in some cases; this suggests ATM can appear to act like a conventional tumour suppressor with biallelic inactivation in the tumour cell
  • missense mutations cluster in the carboxy-terminal phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PIK) domain; this suggests impairment of this domain can contribute to - and may constitute a distinct step in - tumourigenesis
  • rearrangement of the gene is frequent; some rearrangements are consistent with a translocation event, in agreement with cytogenetic data implicating 11q23 in T-PLL; others involve transposition of a segment of the ATM gene elsewhere in the genome.
  • one allele only is mutated (by rearrangement) in some cases; this is probably not associated with a concomitant epigenetic event such as abnormal promoter methylation
  • no T-PLL case has been reported with germline ATM mutation; this may reflect the small numbers investigated; all the same, the hypothesis is excluded that this rare disease is due solely to germline ATM mutation "
  •  
    Gene Symbol ATM
    Description From cancer gene census of CGP: "
  • as with other T-cell neoplasms, T-PLL exhibits clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor genes; translocation t(X;14)(q28;q11) may result into fusion of MTCP1 with TRA/Dgenes; finally, the TCL1 locus on chromosome 14q32 might also been involved
  • in Ataxia Telangiectasia- a rare recessive pleiotropic disease (including elevated cancer predisposition) mapping to 11q23 and caused by mutations of theATM gene - a recurrent malignancy is observed that is similar to T-PLL; its frequency in A-T patients is higher than in the non-A-T related form; A-T related TPLL has a similar course, a similar immunophenotype and similar cytogenetics (with the notable exception that 11q23 breakpoints are recurrent in the sporadic but not the A-T related form of the disease); an initial report of ATM mutations in T-PLL demonstrated the principle that ATM was a candidate cancer gene in sporadic forms of malignancies prevalent in A-T; the identification of lesions in ATM associated with T-PLL has shown that:
  • homozygous truncating mutations are present in some cases; this suggests ATM can appear to act like a conventional tumour suppressor with biallelic inactivation in the tumour cell
  • missense mutations cluster in the carboxy-terminal phosphatidyl-3-kinase (PIK) domain; this suggests impairment of this domain can contribute to - and may constitute a distinct step in - tumourigenesis
  • rearrangement of the gene is frequent; some rearrangements are consistent with a translocation event, in agreement with cytogenetic data implicating 11q23 in T-PLL; others involve transposition of a segment of the ATM gene elsewhere in the genome.
  • one allele only is mutated (by rearrangement) in some cases; this is probably not associated with a concomitant epigenetic event such as abnormal promoter methylation
  • no T-PLL case has been reported with germline ATM mutation; this may reflect the small numbers investigated; all the same, the hypothesis is excluded that this rare disease is due solely to germline ATM mutation "
  •  
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    Source and Citation
    Source Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology
    Citation Michaux L . T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL). Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. October 1997 .
    URL : http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Anomalies/TPLL.html
    URL http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Anomalies/TPLL.html